Eco-San Construct - 2

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Table of Contents:

1. Background
2. Design of Toilets
3. Composting
4. Construction -- Base & Vaults
5. Construction--Pad Fabrication
6. Construction--Superstructure
7. Finished!
8. Monitoring & Evaluation
9. EcoSan Resources


Eco-San Toilets for Kovalam
Building the Base


Dual Chambers

The toilets have two chambers. After defecation, a handful of wood ash, sawdust, straw or leaves is added to enhance the composting process.
    The composting matter should be kept dry, so urine is diverted into a perforated clay pot buried in the ground while anal washing water is diverted to a seepage bed.
    When the first chamber is about ¾ full, it is ‘sealed’ for 6 to 9 months while the second chamber is used.
     During this time, the material in the first chamber ‘composts’. 
As it composts, microorganisms break down organic matter (like feces) into safe topsoil that can be used in gardens to grow food. The compost has a pleasant smell and can be safely handled without fear of contamination.

In this view, the chamber on the left is being used. Urine is diverted to the front and anal washing water to the rear.

Dual-chamber base: The first step in construction is to lay a foundation and then construct the two vaults or chambers. 

The chambers are built with hollow cement blocks. The footprint is about 5'6" x 4'6".

The pictures on the right (press a button to advance) show several stages of construction.

Building the vaults (Press buttons for new picture)

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