Eco-San Superstructure

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Table of Contents:

1. Background
2. Design of Toilets
3. Composting
4. Construction -- Base & Vaults
5. Construction--Pad Fabrication
6. Construction--Superstructure
7. Finished!
8. Monitoring & Evaluation
9. EcoSan Resources


Eco-San Toilets for Kovalam
Fabricating the Pads

As the foundation and vaults are being made, the pads for the 'squat' style toilets are fabricated off site. Two pads are required for each toilet.

 The pads are reinforced with steel re-bar. Note the "hole" in the center (picture 1).

 A simple form is made of bricks; the cement mixed and poured by hand (picture 2). 
An old plastic water jug serves as a form for the center hole.  The small urine and anal-washing holes are made with a stick (pictures 3 and 4).

The 16 pads shown here are for 8 toilets, they can easily be fabricated in a day (picture 5).

Building the squatting pan pads
(Press a button for a new picture)

When the pads are installed above the vaults (last picture) a layer of mortar is added to join the two pads.  A "depression" is added to contain the wash water and urine. (picture 6)

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