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Table of Contents:

1. Background
2. Design of Toilets
3. Composting
4. Construction -- Base & Vaults
5. Construction--Pad Fabrication
6. Construction--Superstructure
7. Finished!
8. Monitoring & Evaluation
9. EcoSan Resources


Eco-San Toilets for Kovalam

Nine students from Japan, all members of the Japan Students Fund, raised funds for the project and then traveled to India at their own expense to help with construction.

Sayaka, Aya, Masae, Akihiko and Hitomi in front of a finished eco-san toilet

Yo white washes the interior of a unit

Aya painting the exterior (Hiroki is in the foreground)

Hitomi painting the exterior

Hiroki in foreground, Akihiko behind

The interior floor and the steps were painted with red-oxide.
A lid is placed over each defecation hole. The blue bucket is for anal washing water; the white bucket holds ash which is added to the compost after each use.

Near the eco-san units:  With the help of village children, Sayaka led efforts to clean the beach of trash.


A young girl helping
 clean the beach


The urine and anal wash water drain outside so the compost remains dry. The protective container for the wash water seepage-bed has yet to be installed.

A completed eco-san unit. The palm frond fence protects a garden and provides privacy.

Mr. Kazuo Minagawa, Japan Consul General helped 'dedicate' the toilets. Next to him is the 70 year old beneficiary. Just behind her is the Panchayat president, Mr. S. Janakiraman. Yuko is on the right.

Aya in front of a completed unit

Satomi in front of a completed unit

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